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发布时间:2019-08-22 17:03:12

跨越文化差异 留学党不可不知的他国礼节


Common sense goes a long way when it comes to learning a countrys proper etiquette. But even the savviest, most observant travellers can make the occasional cultural stumble if they are not careful.


Sam Bruce, a co-founder of the travel site Much Better Adventures, grew up in Hong Kongyet did not realise until he was much older that in Hong Kong, people should always hand over business cards with two hands. I had a rather awkward moment where I casually slid my name card face-down across the table to someone at the end of a meeting, when at the very same moment they delivered theirs, bowing, with both hands, he explained. What I had done was a big no-no and highly disrespectful.

旅游站Much Better Adventures的共同创始人山姆布鲁斯,从小在香港长大,直到长大后才意识到在香港,人们应该用双手递交名片。会议结束后,当我随意把自己的名片朝下,从桌子上滑过去时;对方却弯腰,双手送上他们的名片。那时,我简直尴尬死了。他解释道,我当时的做法是个大禁忌,而且非常无礼。

To discover more of these unexpected missteps, we sought out the advice of users on question and answer site Quora, asking What should I absolutely not do when visiting your country? Here are the etiquette rules that surprised us the most.


The number trap


In some cultures, giving the wrong amount of an item can be worse than no present at all. Do not give an even numbers of flowers as a gift. Thats for dead folks, said Muscovite Katherine Makhalova. A proper bouquet will have one, three, five or seven flowers. Odd numbers of flowers are given for happy occasions in Russia, while bouquets of two, four, six, 12 or 24 stems are often brought to funerals.


Even outside of Russia, knowing which digits are luckyor unluckymay be important. Numbers matter more than you might think, explained Terri Morrison, speaker and author of the Kiss, Bow, or Shake Hands series of etiquette books. In China, the word for four sounds very similar to the word for death, so it is a good idea to avoid giving anything in fours.


Similarly, in Japan, the traditional wedding gift of cash should not be given in bills divisible by two: that signifies the marriage could end in divorce. A gift of 20,000 yen, for example, should be given with one 10,000 yen and two 5,000 yen notes but not two bills of 10,000 yen.


Hands off


Many Quora respondents from southeast Asian countries, such as Thailand and Malaysia, reminded readers to be careful where they touch another person. Never touch anyones head or pass anything from above the head, said Neha Kariyaniya, a resident of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is considered to be the most sacred body part. Such touch is inappropriate even in informal situationsand also applies to small children, as tempting as rubbing their hair might be for visitors from other cultures.

Quora上有许多来自东南亚国家,如泰国和马来西亚的受访者,提醒读者在触摸对方时要小心。永远不要摸别人的头或者从头顶递东西,居住在马来西亚吉隆坡的Neha Kariyaniya说。头部是最神圣的部位。甚至在一些非正式场合这样的触摸也是不合适的,也不能这样对待小孩,,自其他不同文化的游客触摸小孩子头发被看做是一种引诱。

This is also very true in Thailand where the head is considered the seat of the soul, said Morrison. The belief stems primarily from Buddhism, the religion that informs the everyday life of many Thai.


Keep to yourself


Quora users from across Western Europe pleaded for visitors to avoid striking up conversations with strangers. Dont talk to a stranger, except about how bad something is or about the weather, said Londoner Thomas Goodwin. Someone made eye contact with me on the Underground once, joked fellow Londoner Paul Johnson. Now they dont have eyes.


Other British users also commented on this one, saying that while talking to strangers is not always a negative, it should absolutely be avoided when using the Underground, Londons metro. Avoiding eye contact is the only way to preserve your sense of personal space, said Londoner Shefaly Yogendra.

其他英国用户对此评论说,虽然与陌生人交谈并不总是不好的,但绝对避免在伦敦地铁上交谈。避免目光接触是保护你私人空间的唯一方法。伦敦人Shefaly Yogendra说道。

In addition, the business-oriented nature of some of bigger cities in Northern and Western Europe often emphasises saving timeand avoiding unnecessary chatter. Business means business in these countries, and any other topic of conversation is a distraction , said Morrison.


Just go with it


When it comes to humour, people in some countries warned visitors to roll with the punches . Yucatan resident Alejandro Suarez said Mexico is a place where visitors should feel accepted not offended if they are being insulted . We'll mock, ridicule, insult, pick on and put down just for the fun of it, on a regular basis! Suarez said. The best and most warm family dinners are the ones where everyone is laughing their heads off at making fun of someone at the table.

当谈及幽默时,某些国家的人们会警告游客大事化小。尤卡坦半岛居民Alejandro苏亚雷斯说在墨西哥这个地方,如果当游客正在被侮辱时,应该感到受人欢迎而非冒犯 我们嘲笑,讥笑,侮辱,挑剔,贬低,只是为了消遣,很平常而已!苏亚雷斯说。最好最温暖的家庭聚餐是,在餐桌上每个人取笑别人时都会笑得前俯后仰。

This kind of humour is fairly common across Latin American cultures, Morrison said. Still, she warned visitors to tread lightly when returning the jabs. Jokes just do not translate well, she said. Its best to avoid them. One man she interviewed for her books bombed a business meeting when he told a joke in an elevator in Germany. Instead of coming across as funny, he came across as not being serious in a formal situation.


Keep it down


Morrison said she was surprised that Quora users didnt advise against speaking in elevated tones . A loud tone of voice, particularly in a one-on-one conversation, can be tactless in many cultures, she said. In France, its truly gauche .


She mentioned that the French use different volumes for different situations

. In a caf, you cannot overhear a discussion at the nearest table, even if it is only two or three feet away, she said. She recommended always mimicing your conversation partners volume and adjusting upwards only when needed.


Keeping your voice down isnt just polite: it may even be safer. According to Morrison, in the 1990s, hidden microphones were discovered in Air Frances first class cabin . Though it was never determined whether the recordings were for espionage or another purpose, the incident was a reminder that, in todays highly-monitored world, anyone could be listening at any time. Conversations were, and may be [still], monitored by more than your travelling companions on flights, in hotels and in offices around the world, said Morrison. A little discretion and self-awareness goes a long way when it comes to safety and privacy on the road.